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Persian Garden

Persian Garden is one of the oldest and most important gardens in the world. Iranian gardens are mentioned in different historical sources like Greek sources, Torah, and others. Agricultural and horticultural is recommended in the old tradition and rituals of Iranians with pride and dignity. After Islam, this social thought became more religious and promoted it among the people. Persian Gardens' architecture has a very close relation with Iranian homes' architecture.

Iranian gardens  mentioned in different historical sources like Greek sources
Eram Garden, Shiraz, Fars Province

From the Achaemenid dynasty, the idea of an earthly paradise spread to other lands by Iranian literature. The Avestan word Pairidaeza-, Old Persian *Paridaida-' Median *paridaiza-, was borrowed into Akkadian, and then into Greek Ancient,  then rendered into the Latin Paradisus, and from there entered into European languages,  French Paradis, German Paradies, and English paradise.

The gardens have a different purpose:
A place for protected relaxation in a variety of manners.
Leisurely( meeting and banquet or ceremonies with friends).

Persian gardens have a 4000 years previous record. The discovered ceramics in different regions of Iran confirm the Iranian garden designs. The outline of Pasargadae, built around 500 BC, is viewable today. In the area of Pasargad, there was a famous garden that some of its parts,  like the aqueduct, is remained yet. This royal garden was about 8 hectares, and now only some parts of the aqueduct and watermarks are visible.

Most famous Iranian gardens

Persian Garden is one of the oldest and most important gardens in the world
Dowlat abad Garden, Yazd

 Persian garden has different concepts in Iranian culture

- Persian garden is an allegory of paradise.
- The presence and role of the garden in desert areas.
- Centrality and unity in the garden.
- The role of water in the garden.
- Garden plants and their regularities.

Persian garden is an allegory of paradise

All divine religions believe human is exiled from paradise. And all promise to return there again. Belief in paradise exists in all religions. The Egyptians, Chinese, and Japanese believe that the soul of a human returns to Paradise with a new form. In Islamic thought, one can enter paradise after death. For this reason, in various parts of the Quran, Muslims are promised paradise. Thus, Iranians have imagined paradise in different parts of their lives. The tile work of mosques, Miniatures paintings, the designs of the carpet, and most famous of them at their gardens.

Most famous Iranian gardens

Persian garden an allegory of paradise
Shahzade Garden, Mahan, Kerman Province

The presence and role of the garden in desert areas
Plants and trees have been respected by Iranians from the past. Also, water is one of the most important factors in the formation of Iranian gardens. The combination of these two important elements in each part of this land has created a beautiful paradise for the people of that area.

Centrality and unity in the garden

In Iranian gardens, water streams are usually laid in the middle of the garden, and various types of trees are planted around them. This kind of design presents centrality and unity in the Iranian garden.

The role of water in the garden

Water is one of the most important elements of desert life. The water among the Iranians is not only a material cause, but it has also a religious value with a special angel for it. In this way, In all gardens, water flows in four different streams This design is a symbol of the four elements (wind, water, Fire, Soil).

Water as the origin of beauty in the Persian garden

All divine religions belive the human is exiled from paradise
Ferdows Garden, Tehran

Garden plants and their regularities

Geometric shapes have special credit in the architecture of Iranian gardens. The square shape was very important because it shows the distances between the garden components simply. All the spaces are independent and distinctive in Iranian garden architecture and are in use. They used tall trees to create shadows. There were various flowers in the space between the trees. These flowers use for the preparation of various materials such as perfume, food, or other things.

The common features of Iranian gardens
- The garden is usually divided into four parts
- Using straight lines in the design
- There is a big building in the center or the tallest part of the garden
- Using the mainstream in the middle of the garden
- A close interface with nature
- Planting fruit trees in a large part of the garden

The 9 Iranian Gardens in Iran, and two gardens in India and a garden in Pakistan
Shahzade Garden, Mahan, Kerman Province

World Heritage

9 Iranian Gardens in Iran, and two gardens in India, and a garden in Pakistan, were registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2011. Persian garden is not limited to the geographical boundaries of Iran. There are other examples of it in other countries, especially India and Pakistan. The Iranian gardens in other countries reflect the impact of Iranian culture among other ethnicities and groups.

World Heritage Sites
Pasargad Garden at Pasargadae, Iran (WHS 1372-001)
Eram Garden, Shiraz, Iran (WHS 1372-002)
Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan, Iran (WHS 1372-003)
Fin Garden, Kashan, Iran (WHS 1372-004)
Abbasabad Garden, Abbasabad, Mazandaran, Iran (WHS 1372-005)
Shazdeh Garden, Mahan, Kerman Province, Iran (WHS 1372-006)
Dolatabad Garden, Yazd, Iran (WHS 1372-007)
Pahlevanpour Garden, Iran (WHS 1372-008)
Akbarieh Garden, South Khorasan Province, Iran (WHS 1372-009)

See also
Delgosha Garden
El-Gölü Garden
Fath Abad Garden
Harandi Garden
Moshir Al Mamalek Hotel Garden
Afif Abad Garden
Hasht Behesht Garden