Parthian Empire (247 BC-224 AD)
The first Iranian independent government which established inside the Seleucid rule (250 B.C.), it called Arsacid Dynasty in Persian language because the name of their first king was Arsac. After unifying their power the Parthian kings expelled the Seleucid rulers and built a new big Iranian empire, sixth in size in the ancient world. The only enemy during their rule was Rome. The Parthian dynasty governed with 29 Kings and about 470 years.
Parthian golden necklace, 2nd century AD, Iran, Reza Abbasi Museum
During the Parthian Period trade expanded from Syria and Phoenicia at west to India and China at east. Their area was attacked by barbarian invaders and they had different wars with them. These wild group harassed the Parthian country from the east toward the west. The Parthian government's system was very new because! they had two consultative parliaments. One! parliament was composed of princes and nobles! and the other by priests. The two parliaments limited the royal authority and the kings did not possess absolute power.
The first Parthian capital was probably at Dara that today is called Abiverd, Hecatompylos, one of the most recent capitals, was probably close to the modern Dāmghān city. The empire was on govern by a small Parthian aristocracy who used the social organizations established by the Seleucids successfully, and who endure the development of vassal kingdoms. The Parthians controlled most of the trade roads between Asia and the Greco-Roman, and this control provided them a great wealth that they used for their vast construction activities.